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The term Coaching derives from English and means "carriage" or means that accompanies or leads to a specific place.
Coaching is a professional service exercised in various organizational fields, both in the form of a free professional activity and within organizations.

It consists of a method of development of individuals, groups and organizations, based on the recognition, enhancement and training of the potential for the achievement of objectives defined by the client (coachee) and with any client.

The partnership process between coach and coachee is based on a relationship of mutual trust; the professional action of the coach facilitates the coachee to improve and enhance his skills and enhance his resources.


The Coaching client is a person or an organization that wants to achieve higher performance or individual or organizational well-being goals.

Coaching is a particularly appreciated methodology for personalization according to the client's needs and measurable results in a relatively short time.

The evolution of the coachee takes place through a process of discovery, goal setting and strategic actions that allow the person to increase the sense of self-efficacy and self-realization.

The coachee is responsible for making explicit his/her needs and expectations with respect to the path and, after having agreed, must be motivated to change, implementing the agreed/planned actions. (source AICP)


For this reason, a coaching journey requires the client to take responsibility to commit himself concretely and creatively in achieving the objectives.


The coach does not judge, does not give lessons or prescriptions, but welcomes and listens to the client in an open and dedicated way, with human curiosity, acceptance and mental openness. He offers his technique and his skills to explore the situation, stimulating the client to see the theme he wants to tackle from other perspectives, and transform the vision of the future adhering to his wishes.


The coaching work therefore focuses on the present and on the strengths, as matrices from which to bring out the future. Inspired by Socratic maieutics (the art of bringing to light), he supports the client to allow him through dialogue to bring out what is already present in him.


We are, both positively and negatively, the result of daily and constant physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual and social training.
When we recognize this fact we have a powerful tool at our disposal: we can in fact govern ourselves, choose who we want to be and train ourselves to become it, to live a life not only happy, but full of meaning.
For this reason, training is the 'operative tool' par excellence of coaching, and the coach is a real coach of potential and awareness, who transforms our resources into
levers of change al
service of their goals.



Feeling capable of shaping our existence gives us deep pleasure and great energy, while progressive training strengthens our abilities, respecting the time it takes to welcome a new way of seeing, feeling, thinking, desiring and acting.


In addition to keeping up to date with respect to his specific activity, he keeps the interest in all disciplines alive and operational in the awareness of his own ignorance. The coach is required to use the coaching methodology for which he is able to indicate the sources and scientific references and does not create unfounded expectations in the client.

What is Coaching?

Coaching is a methodology for the development of resources and skills guided by a coach in partnership with the client (coachee) who uses models and techniques and develops in a process of times and action plans to achieve the agreed coaching objectives. The essence of good coaching is to develop awareness and responsibility.

What Coaching is not

It's not psychotherapy.  Psychotherapy is a curative system for mental suffering and/or existential discomfort, based on the use of psychological means and conducted according to the approaches on which the different schools qualifying for the profession of psychotherapist are based. (source Treccani, adapted)

It's not Counseling. Professional Counseling is an activity whose goal is to improve the client's quality of life, supporting his strengths and his capacity for self-determination. Counseling offers a space for listening and reflection, in which to explore relative difficulties  a evolutionary processes, transition phases and states of crisis and strengthen the ability to choose or change. It is an intervention that uses various methodologies borrowed from different theoretical orientations. It is aimed at individuals, families, groups and institutions. Counseling can be provided in various fields, such as private, social, school, health, business. (

It's not Consulting. Consulting is the profession of a consultant, i.e. a person who, having an ascertained qualification in a subject, advises and assists his client in carrying out treatments, acts, practices or projects by providing or implementing information, opinions or solutions through his know-how and own problem solving skills.

It's not Mentoring. Mentoring is a training methodology that refers to a one-to-one relationship (formal or informal) between a subject with more experience (senior, mentor) and one with less experience (junior, mentee, protégé), i.e. a student, at the in order to help the latter develop skills in the training, work and social fields and to develop self-esteem, at an educational-scholastic level, for social reintegration.


Who is the Coaching aimed at?

The coaching client is a person or organization that wants to achieve a higher level of performance, or increase skills or satisfaction in their job quickly. for a specific project or to prepare the management of other people.
Sometimes there is a lack of clarity about the choices to make or there is a need to rebalance the time dedicated to work with respect to private life or overcome periods of stress. In other cases there is a need to manage one's business in a more organized way or face phases of change or even improve relationship skills and promote self-efficacy.

When do I know if I need a coach?

When you have a goal in mind but for some reason your personal resources are momentarily “unavailable”. Ask yourself if you are willing and flexible to implement real changes in your work or in your life and are you willing to exchange ideas, broaden perspectives and take the time to promote personal self-development.

What benefits do I get?

The coaching methodology promotes self-development as it allows you to focus on others with responsibility and awarenessobjectives to be achieved and the choices to be made following a strategy and an action plan.

How does a coaching process take place? How long does it last?

It begins with a personal interview to establish the results to be achieved and define the purposes of the relationship and the priorities of actions after carefully examining the reality and the options available. The sessions can take place in presence or by telephone or with remote audiovisual systems and the duration of the session is agreed to be a minimum of one hour and a maximum of two hours. The duration of the coaching relationship varies according to the needs of the person or of the organization depending on the type of objectives to be achieved, the frequency of the sessions and the available financial resources. With coaching you work in the present towards the desired goal. The client chooses the topic of conversation (focus) and the coach listens to him by asking effective observations and questions that lead the client towards greater proactivity.

Is there a register of Coaches?

No, the Coaching profession does not belong to orders and colleges. La Law 4/2013 Regulates non-Ordinary Professional activities in order to make the consumer more informed

What are the key points of Law 4/2013?

The law recognizes the role of Professional Associations from various points of view:
1) have the function of contributing to transparency to protect customers and can be registered in special registers of the Ministry of Economic Development
2) can issue "certificate" to their members
3) promote the transparency of information on coaching through the Consumer Desk
4) establish requirements to be able to join
5) establish requirements for annual continuing education updates
6) establish a code of conduct to be respected
7) supervise the code of ethics and issue penalties for malpractice
8) maintain an updated list of members online
9) have offices in at least three regions in Italy
10) can collaborate in the elaboration of the UNI technical regulations relating to individual professional activities


What is UNI?

It is a private non-profit association, whose members are companies, professionals, economic and professional associations, workers' unions and the Public Administration.
UNI carries out regulatory activities in all industrial, commercial and tertiary sectors.
The development of technical standards must respect the following principles:
- Voluntariness

Does coaching come from America?

Coaching was born in the 70s, from the theories of Timothy Gallwey, coach of the Harvard University tennis team. His book "The Inner Game" was born from the analysis according to which the ability to play at the best of his tennis students depends on having mental interferences and obstacles. Gallwey argues that the challenges of existence are fought simultaneously in two areas: the exterior and that of the mind, in which we defeat obstacles that we ourselves create on a daily basis by limiting the development of our full potential.

How does coaching arrive in Italy?

It was John Whitmore, a former racing driver and later a sports psychologist, who brought coaching to Europe and therefore allowed it to spread in Italy in the 1980s. Whitmore introduced coaching to the world of business and professional career, as a method able to provideand a high level of personal awareness and responsibility, which are essential to increase one's level of performance.

Why is there so much talk about coaching today?

In the era of exponential time and rapid change, people and companies need growth and excellence. The logic of adapting to pre-established and fixed social and business rules is being replaced by the dynamism and urgency of ever greater responsibility on the part of the single individual. Coaching accustoms people to think independently, and this autonomy allows for the development and training of individual potential in favor of community and corporate growth. Our evolution requires us to train and improve ourselves not only on a technical level in the professional field but also on a personal level by developing relational and emotional skills. Coaching trains in this process of constant improvement by keeping knowledge, know-how and know-how in balance. (source AICP)


Coaching has a multidisciplinary nature, which brings together principles and contributions from classical philosophy, the sports field, the field of business management, cognitive and humanistic psychology, up to positive psychology, united by the _cc781905-5cde-3194- bb3b-136bad5cf58d_  commitment to the improvement of the individual and his well-being.

The millenary roots of coaching: Socrates and Maieutics

We can consider Socrates as the 'Inspiring Father', the forerunner of Coaching. Maieutics (which means art of the midwife), which he founded, is in summary the art of bringing to light, through dialogue, what is already proper to the person, the awareness of the truth that is already within him. Just like a midwife, the philosopher of Athens intended to "get out" absolutely personal thoughts from the pupil, unlike those who wanted to impose their views on others with rhetoric and the art of persuasion. Socrates philosophized with people by talking and asking them questions, instead of making speeches and trying to convince them, he questioned his interlocutors stimulating them to a continuous growth in knowledge, without ever forcing or suggesting answers.

In the same way, the coach does not judge, does not give advice or recipes, but listens with an open mind, supporting the client to bring out truths and personal awareness.

Tim Gallwey: the inner game

Almost 2,500 years after Socrates, a Harvard university professor, as well as player and instructor, Tim Gallwey, publishes a book, The Inner Game of Tennis, following which he will be unanimously considered the Pioneer of Coaching.

The central concept of the book: 'The opponent hiding in our mind is much stronger than the one we have on the other side of the net' marks a revolution in the world and in sports training techniques, bringing to the fore the need to take into account personal internal barriers and to develop confidence in one's ability to learn naturally from one's direct experience. Only by recognizing and minimizing internal interference and reinforcing one's self-efficacy can the athlete express optimal performance.

Once again at the center of the method we find the person's ability to express, extract from within himself, his own truth in terms of potential and performance.

Gallwey's approach is summarized in the formula:


Sir John Whitmore: coaching managers to excellence.

John Whitmore is a former racing driver turned business consultant. Very impressed by Gallwey's book, he initially collaborated with him to spread coaching in the sports field, subsequently developing a reworking of the method dedicated to the business world, which focuses on the development of the person's potential rather than limiting interference.

The GROW method (Goals, Reality, Options, Will) was illustrated in a book released in 1992 "Coaching for performance", which is still the best-selling book on coaching in the world. Central tool of the method are the so-called effective questions that the coach asks the client, as a means of stimulating awareness of the situation, of the objectives, of determination, of obstacles, etc.

Goals  Reality  GROW  Options _cc781905-5cde-3194-6bb3d_Wibb3b-183bad3b5cfll


Martin P. Seligman & Co – The Fantastic Mission

 Positive Emotions  Meaning 

 Engagement Positive Relationships Achievement 


These are, according to Martin Seligman, the five aspects that make life worth living, real parameters on which to measure one's well-being and that of society.

Martin P. Seligman, US psychologist, former president of the American Psychological Association, is the co-founder, together with Christopher Peterson, of positive psychology, who has given an essential contribution to the development of coaching.

According to Seligman, psychology, which has dealt almost exclusively with malaise and pathologies, must devote equal attention to the positive aspects of human existence: pleasant emotions, potential, virtues and abilities of the individual.

The emphasis on the fundamental role of the individual's resources and potential represents an authentic reversal of perspective: interventions aimed at mobilizing the person's abilities and resources are favored, rather than at reducing or compensating for their limitations. Furthermore, the eudaimonic perspective draws attention to the relationship between the well-being of the individual and the development of the community, a very hot topic in this historical moment. Taking up the theoretical revolution of Abraham Maslow's Humanistic Psychology, Seligman coordinated an absolutely original research: psychologists, philosophers, sociologists from all over the world collaborated to identify and classify the universal virtues and personal potential recognized as common to all populations and cultures, both historically and nowadays. Positive psychology, and the work of Seligman and Peterson on the classification of universal virtues and personal strengths, have enriched the coaching method in a decisive way, above all from a theoretical point of view.(source AICP


Until a few years ago, thinking about doing a remote coaching session was unthinkable. One of the elements that distinguishes the effectiveness of the process is empathetic communication, so without communicative immediacy or fluidity in the video call it was really difficult both for the customer but above all for the professional. I have heard several colleagues tell of having had telephone sessions in the impossibility of seeing each other on video. In my opinion, without that minimum of contact, the session is ineffective and time is wasted.

Today everything has changed thanks to new technologies: above all the broadband connection, much more performing devices and above all the predisposition of people, customers and professionals, to see each other even on video.
In order to create an excellent course (and where possible):
the ideal is to meet at least once in person at the beginning of the journey, make agreements to be able to leave and then use one of the video conferencing options such as skype, zoom, meet, etc.
A fixed point for the development is being able to see each other's faces clearly and have good audio,  so that the emotions arrive and can be recognized (according to the basis of empathy mentioned above). All as in presence without external interference.
Another important element between one session and another is the programmed interaction in exchanges and feedback via messages or calls to check the path and the implementation of the action plan aimed at the objective of the path.


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